Добро должно быть с кулаками. А зло - с тентаклями. Народная мудрость (с)

12) The adjective.
Adjectives in Old English are declined using the same categories as nouns: five cases (nom., acc., gen., dat., and instr.), three genders (masc., fem., neut.), and two numbers (sg., pl.). In addition, they can be declined either strong or weak. The weak forms are used in the presence of a definite or possessive determiner, while the strong ones are used in other situations. The weak forms are identical to those for nouns, while the strong forms use a combination of noun and pronoun endings.
The adjective does the job of the article, to convey definiteness and indefiniteness.
Strong adjectives.
masc. neut. fem.
nom. gōd 'good' gōd gōd
gen. gōdes gōdes gōdre
dat. gōdum gōdum gōdre
acc. gōdne gōd gōde
instr. gōde gōde
pl. nom. gōde gōd, gōde gōda, -e
gen. gōdra gōdra gōdra
dat. gōdum gōdum gōdum
acc. gōde gōd, gōde gōda, -e
Weak adjectives.
masc. neut. fem.
nom. gōda 'good' gōde gōde
gen. gōdan gōdan gōdan
dat. gōdan gōdan gōdan
acc. gōdan gōde gōdan
pl. nom. gōdan gōdan gōdan
gen. gōdra, -ena gōdra, -ena gōdra, -ena
dat. gōdum gōdum gōdum
acc. gōdan gōdan gōdan
Comparative adjectives and ordinal numbers (except for ōðer 'second') are always declined weak.
Comparison of adjectives.
The comparative adjective is made by adding -r- between the root syllable and the inflectional ending, which is always weak regardless of context. The superlative is made by adding -ost, which may be followed by either a weak or a strong inflection. Examples:
heard 'hard, fierce' heardra heardost
milde 'kind' mildra mildost
hāliġ 'holy' hāliġra hālgost
sweotol 'clear' sweotolra sweotolost
Some adjectives have i-mutation in the comparative and superlative forms, and in these cases the superlative element is usually -est. For example:
eald 'old' ieldra ieldest
ġeong 'young' ġinġra ġinġest
hēah 'high' hīera hīehst
lang 'long' lenġra lenġest
strang 'strong' strenġra strenġest
Modern English has lost the alternative comparative and superlative sēlra 'better' and sēlest 'best'.
13) The adverb.
Adverbs are not inflected. An adverb may be made from an adjective by adding -e; since many adjectives are made by adding -liċ to nouns or other adjectives, you will often see adverbs ending in -līċe.
Adverbs may also be made by adding case endings to nouns, for example, Gen. dæġes 'by day', unðances 'unwillingly'; Dat. nēode 'necessarily', hwīlum 'at times'.
Interrogative adverbs: hū 'how'; hwǣr 'where'; hwider 'whither'; hwonne 'when'; hwanon 'whence'; hwȳ 'why'.
Comparison of adverbs.
Adverbs made from adjectives normally add -or to make the comparative and -ost to make the superlative: ġearwor and ġearwost from ġearwe 'readily' (adjective ġearo 'ready'), lēoflīcor, lēoflīcost from lēoflīċe 'lovingly' (adjective lēof, lēofliċ 'beloved'). Other adverbs may add -rra or -ra for the comparative and -mest for the superlative (e.g. norðerra, norðmest from norð 'northwards').
A few common adverbs make their comparatives by applying i-mutation:
ēaðe 'easily' īeð ēaðost
feorr 'far' fierr fierrest
lange 'long' lenġ lenġest
sōfte 'softly' sēft sōftost
Others are anomalous:
lȳtle, lȳt 'a little' lǣs lǣst, lǣsest
miċle 'much' mā mǣst
nēah 'near' nīer nīehst, nēxt
wel 'well' bet, sēl betst, sēlest
yfle 'badly' wiers(e) wierrest, wierst
Из лекции Володарской:
The great major of adverb is old. English adverbs are formed from adjectives by means of the suffix –e-. Historicaly this suffix came from the ending –o plus instrumental case.
e.g wreth – angry
wrethe (adv)
ly – маркер современного наречия, означало body.
e.g. lych gate
The differences of noun and adjective is the prescuse of instrumental case in adjective.
This -e ending was lost along with all other final –e by the end of the 19th century which resulted many modern english adjectives and adverbs being identically in form.
“deep”, “loud”, “slow” can be both with and without “ly” in modern english.
e.g He thought deeply abuot religious matters. (metaphorical)
He dives deep in the sea. (physically)
В метафрическом значении прибавляется “ly”.
In addition of other forms ??? might be use adverbiation.
e.g. the genetive and the dative.
Adverbied genetive:
He hwearf aeges ond nihtes (gen).
He wndered by days and nights.
He works nights. – Он работает по ночам. (сохранилось окончание –s в nights)
Adverbied dativ:
e.g. nwilum – at times
winte – at all
Adverbs regulary formed the comparative degree with the suffixes or the superlative with the suffixes –ost- or –est-.
e.g. wrethe – (иногда писалось долгая а)
Орфография английского письма очень долгое время была сверхразнообразна.
Одни и те же слова писались разными вариантами, реже с германскими корнями и чаще с заимствованиями. (всё)
Just some words about the adverbs from the Enternet.
They can be either primary (original adverbs) or derive from the adjectives. In fact, adverbs appeared in the language rather late, and eraly Proto-Indo-European did not use them, but later some auxiliary nouns and pronouns losing their declension started to play the role of adverbial modifiers. That's how thew primary adverbs emerged.
14) The Old English Numeral.
It is obvious that all Indo-European languages have the general trend of transformation from the synthetic (or inflectional) stage to the analytic one. At least for the latest 1,000 years this trend could be observed in all branches of the family.
The level of this analitization process in each single language can be estimated by several features, their presence or absence in the language. One of them is for sure the declension of the numerals.
In Proto-Indo-European all numerals, both cardinal and ordinal, were declined, as they derived on a very ancient stage from nouns or adjectives, originally being a declined part of speech. There are still language groups within the family with decline their numerals: among them, Slavic and Baltic are the most typical samples. They practically did not suffer any influence of the analytic processes. But all other groups seem to have been influenced somehow. Ancient Italic and Hellenic languages left the declension only for the first four cardinal pronouns (from 1 to 4), the same with ancient Celtic.
The numeral.
Cardinal numbers (one, two) may function either as nouns or as adjectives.
ān fēower seofon tīen
twēġen, twā fīf eahta endleofan
ðrīe, ðrēo siex nigon twelf
The cardinal ān is usually declined as a strong adjective; when it is declined weak (āna) it means alone: hē āna læġ 'he lay alone'. The cardinals two and three have their own peculiar inflectional system:
The numerals twēġen and ðrīe
masc. neut. fem.
Nom. twēġen twā, tū twā
Gen. twēġa, twēġra twēġa, twēġra twēġa, twēġra
Dat. twǣm, twām twǣm, twām twǣm, twām
Acc. twēġen twā, tū twā
three Nom. ðrīe ðrēo ðrēo
Gen. ðrēora ðrēora ðrēora
Dat. ðrim ðrim ðrim
Acc. ðrīe ðrēo ðrēo
The numbers thirteen-nineteen are made by adding -tīene to the numbers ðrēo - nigon: ðrēotīene, fēowertīene, etc. From twenty through the sixties, numbers are in the form ān and twentiġ 'twenty-one'.
Starting with seventy, Old English prefixes hund- to the expected forms: hundseofontiġ 'seventy', ān hund 'one hundred', hundtwelftiġ 'one hundred and twenty'.
Ordinal numbers (first, second) are always adjectives, and all of them are declined weak except for ōðer 'second', which is always strong.
forma, fyrmest fēorða seofoða tēoða
ōðer fīfta eahtoða endlyfta
ðridda siexta nigoða twelfta
For 'thirteenth' to 'nineteenth', add the element -tēoða in place of ordinal -tīene: ðrēotēoða 'thirteen'. For 'twentieth' and higher, add -tigoða, -tegoða or -teogoða: fīfteogoða 'fiftieth', fīf and hundeahtatigoða 'eighty-fifth'.

15) Word order.
The order of words in the Old English sentence was relatively free. The position of words in the sentence was often determined by logical and stylistic factors rather than by grammatical constraints. The word order of Old English was not important because of the synthetic morphology of the language. As long as declension was correct, it did not matter whether is said, "My name is..." as "Mīn nama is..." or "Nama mīn is..."
Nevertheless the freedom of word order and its seeming in¬dependence of grammar should not be overestimated. The order of words could depend on the communicative type of the sentence – question versus statement, on the type of clause, on the presence and place of some secondary parts of the sentence.
Because of its similarity with Old Norse, it is believed that the word order of Old English changed when asking a question, from subject-verb-object to verb-subject-object.
I am... becomes Am I...? Ic eom... becomes Eom ic...?
Inversion was used for grammatical purposes in questions; full in¬version with simple predicates and partial – with compound predi¬cates, containing link-verbs and modal verbs:
Hwanon ferigeaþ ge fætte scyldas? 'From where do you bring (lit. "bring you") ornamented shields?'
Eart þu Esau, mīn sunu? 'Are you Esau, my son?'
Hwæt sceal ic singan? 'What shall I sing?'
Prepositions and postpositions.
Old English prepositions often come after their object; that is, an Old English prepositional phrase can consist of a noun or noun phrase followed by a preposition.
E.g: God cwæð him ðus to (God said thus to him).
In the example the object of the preposition is a personal pronoun. Prepositions usually precede their objects when the object is a noun, but they often follow the object if the object is a pronoun.
The analysis allowed us to specify the main tendencies in Old English syntax: free word order due to numerous inflections, double negation, rare complicated syntactical structures. Different types of word order could be used in similar syntactical conditions. It appears that in many respects Old English syntax was characterized by a wide range of varia¬tion and by the co-existence of various, sometimes even opposing, tend¬encies.
In the course of history the structure of the simple sentence in many respects became more orderly and more uniform. Yet, at the same time it grew complicated as the sentence came to include more extended and complex parts: longer attributive groups, diverse subjects and predicates and numerous predicative constructions (syntactic complexes).
In OE the ties between the words in the sentence were shown mainly by means of government and agreement, with the help of numerous inflections.
18) The vocabulary.
Old English had a purely Germanic vocabulary and few foreign borrowings. There were two main layers of words in the language: large number of native words and some borrowings.
The layer of the native words consist of common Indo-European words – the oldest part of the vocabulary, denoting the immediate surrounding of the human; common Germanic words, denoting aspects of the everyday life; and specifically Old English words, which do not appear in the other languages.
The layer of the borrowed words consists of the Celtic and Latin borrowings. Very few Celtic-loans denote mainly place-names. The Latin language had a notable influence on the Old English alphabet, writing and literature and also on the vocabulary. There three sources of the Latin words in Old English: from the Romanized Celts, from the continental West Germanic tribes and due to the introduction of Christianity.
Middle English: There were two layers of lexical borrowings: the Scandinavian element in the North-Eastern area and the French element in the speech of townspeople in the South-East.
The written records of the late 14th and 15th c. show the growth of the English vocabulary and the increasing proportion of French loan-words in English.
Early Modern English: The new, bourgeois society and the wider horizons of man's activity caused the growth of the vocab¬ulary.
In the 19th and 20th c. the English vocabulary has grown due to the rapid progress of technology, science and culture and other changes in all spheres of man's activities.
Pre-Roman period.
Firstly much of the island was covered in forest which was cleared as and when needed. The country was populated by Celts who spoke a form of Gaelic similar to that still spoken in some parts of Ireland today.
The Celts, were divided into various tribes and lived in settlements they referred to as cities, though in terms of size and population they were as villages. The society was hierarchical with a King at the Top. Beneath him were the leading nobles who included members of the Druidical priesthood. These were followed by lesser nobles. At the bottom were the common people who had very limited rights and were not permitted to own property.
The lower orders generally lived in the same settlement all their lives although movement dig take place if land was taken from a neighbouring tribe in war. Higher class women sometimes moved to another tribe if she was married into it. Such inter tribal marriages were common, mainly for political reasons and because it was not seen as fitting for a woman to marry someone lower down the social scale than herself.
The religion of the island was druidical. It was overseen was a chief priest known as the Archdruid. Beneath him were lesser priests. The Year was divided into thirteen months each represented by a star sign. The people worshiped many gods and goddesses the names of many of these are lost but were basically counterparts of the Greek and Roman Gods. In times of crises the druids would practice human sacrifice. It was considered a great honour to be chosen for as the sacrifice. The belief in resurrection made for willing victims.
By 500 BC most people inhabiting the western British Isles were speaking some form of Insular Celtic. However, placenames and tribal names from the later part of the period suggest that a Celtic language was spoken. The term "Celtic" continues to be used by linguists to describe the family that includes many of the ancient languages of Western Europe and modern British languages such as Welsh without controversy.
The last centuries before the Roman invasion saw an influx of mixed Germanic-Celtic speaking refugees from Gaul (approximately modern day France and Belgium) known as the Belgae, who were displaced as the Roman Empire expanded around 50 BC.
There are very few Celtic loan-words in the OE vocabulary, for there must have been little intermixture between the Germanic settlers and the Celtic in Britain. Though in some parts of the island the Celts population was not exterminated during the West-Germanic invasion, linguistic evidence of Celtic influence is not significant.
Borrowings from Celtic are to be found in place-names: the OE kingdoms Kent, Deira and Bernicia derive their names from the names of Celtic tribes. The name of York, the Downs and perhaps London (Llyn-dūn – later Londinium in Roman) have been traced to Celtic sources. Various Celtic designations of ‘river’ and ‘water’ were understood by the Germanic invaders as proper names: Avon and Ouse/Esk/Exe, loch is “lake”; Thames, Stour, Dover also come from Celtic. Many place-names with Celtic elements are hybrids; the Celtic component, combined with a Latin or a Germanic component, makes a compound place-name, e.g.: Celtic plus Latin: Man-chester, Win-chester, Lan-caster; Celtic plus Germanic: York-shire, Corn-wall, Devon-shire, Canter-bury. In addition, they can be found in common words: cradle, dun (бурый), iren (iron).

Norman French in the Kingdom of England.
The transfer of power in 1066 resulted in only limited culture shock. But the top levels of society of English-speaking political and ecclesiastical hierarchies were removed. Their replacements spoke Norman French and used Latin for administrative purposes. Thus Norman French came into use as a language of polite discourse and literature, and this fundamentally altered the role of Old English in education and administration, even though many Normans of the early period were illiterate and depended on the clergy for written communication and record-keeping. Although Old English was by no means as standardised as modern English, its written forms were less subject to broad dialect variations than was post-Conquest English. Even now, after nearly a thousand years, the Norman influence on the English language is still apparent, though it did not begin to affect Middle English until somewhat later.
Consider these pairs of Modern English words. The first of each pair is derived from Old English and the second is of Anglo-Norman origin: pig/pork, chicken/poultry, calf/veal, cow/beef, wood/forest, sheep/mutton, house/mansion, worthy/honourable, bold/courageous, freedom/liberty.
The role of Anglo-Norman as the language of government and law can be seen in the abundance of Modern English words for the mechanisms of government which derive from Anglo-Norman: court, judge, jury, appeal, parliament. Also prevalent in Modern English are terms relating to the chivalric cultures which arose in the 12th century, an era of feudalism and crusading. Early on, this vocabulary of refined behaviour began to work its way into English: the word 'debonaire' appears in the 1137 Peterborough Chronicle; so too does 'castel' (castle), another import of the Normans, who made their mark on the English language as much as on the territory of England itself.
This period of trilingual activity developed much of the flexible triplicate synonymy of modern English. For instance, English has three words meaning roughly "of or relating to a king":
* kingly from Old English,
* royal from French and
* regal from Latin.
Likewise, Norman and — later — French influences led to some interesting word pairs in English, such as the following, which both mean "someone who defends":
* Warden from Norman, and
* Guardian from French (itself of Germanic origin).

The Roman conquest.
The history of the English language begins with the invasion of the British Isles by Germanic tribes in the 5th c. of our era. Prior to the Germanic invasion the British Isles must have been inhabited for at least fifty thousand years.
The earliest inhabitants were the Celts. The Celts came to Britain in three waves and immediately preceded the Teutons. Economically and socially they were a tribal society made up of kinship groups, tribes and clans; they were engaged in agriculture and carried on trade with Celtic Gaul.
In the first century B.C. Gaul was conquered by the Romans. Having occupied Gaul Julius Caesar made two raids on Britain, in 55 and 54 B.C. The British Isles had long been known to the Romans as a source of valuable tin ore; Caesar attacked Britain for economic reasons – to obtain tin, pearls and corn, - and also for strategic reasons, since rebels and refugees from Gaul found support among their British kinsmen. Although Caesar failed to subjugate Britain, Roman economic penetration to Britain grew; traders and colonists from Rome came in large numbers to settle in the south-eastern towns. In A.D. 43 Britain was again invaded by Roman legions under Emperor Claudius, and towards the end of the century was made a province of the Roman Em¬pire.
There was a network of paved Roman roads connected the towns and military camps. Scores of towns with a mixed population grew along the Roman roads – inhabited by Roman legionaries and civilians and by the native Celts; among the most important trading centers of Roman Britain was London.
The Roman occupation of Britain lasted nearly 400 years; it came to an end in the early 5th c. In A.D. 410, the Roman troops were officially withdrawn to Rome by Constantine. This temporary withdrawal turned out to be final, for the Empire was breaking up due to internal and external causes.
Since the Romans had left the British Isles some time before the invasion of the West Germanic tribes, there could never be any direct contacts between the new arrivals and the Romans on British soil.
The Scandinavian on OE.
In the 8th century Scandinavian Danes made their 1st attacks on England. The struggle lasted over 300 years. Then King Alfred proclaimed peace treaty of 878. England was divided into halves: the north-eastern (Danish) and called Danelagh. And south-western (Wessex). But in 1013 Danish attacked again headed by Sweyn and Canute. And Canute became the king of England. After Canute death 1035 England became independent.
Linguistic mixture of these languages went easy, since they belonged to the same linguistic group. In the 12th-l3th cc. the Scandinavian element was incorporated in the central English dialects. They had the same morphological categories, strong and weak declination of substantives of several types, according to the stem vowel; strong and weak declination of the adjectives; seven classes of strong and three classes of weak verbs. A considerable part of vocabulary in OE and Scandinavian was similar. In many words the root was the same, while the endings were different (fisc-fiscr-fish) Another part of Scandinavian vocabulary did not correspond to English, for example in the political and economical spheres. Even the 3rd person singular personal pronoun was taken from Scandinavian. Among Scandinavian loan words there were some military terms, but later they were misplaced by French words. During the Danish influence many Scandinavian words came into English: ado, anger, bag, both, egg, fellow, flat, get, gap, gift, give, gun, how, husband, ill, knife, knot, law, mistake, odd, run, score, sky, take, Thursday, ugly, valley, weak, window and others.
Pronouns “they”, “them”, “then” were also borrowed from Scand dialogs. Usually peoples don’t borrow such initial words as pronouns, names of relatives, because each people, when they form their identity, can’t live without such words, so they have their own words. But the example of the Danish-English conquest gives us serious information about general linguistics.
The other layer of Scand borrowings is connected with geographical names which have a unit “-so” (thoip), also - village in Kirkby, hill in Langtoft. Scand words became evident only in7 century (appeared in Eng writings).
19. 7 kingdoms and dialects
Anglo-Saxon England was a turbulent country with a number of competing kingdoms, always under threat from European invaders. As the Anglo-Saxons slowly colonised the country seven kingdoms were established which later became known as the “Heptarchy”. They were: East Anglia, Essex, Kent, Mercia, Northumbria, Sussex and Wessex
There were many squabbles between them and the last three of the kingdoms; Mercia, Northumbria and Wessex were in a continuous state of war.
Mercia, founded in about 500 A.D. occupied much of southern England up to the Trent basin. The first identifiable king was Creoda, who ruled from 586 to 593. He was succeeded by his son Wybba, who ruled until his death in 615 and followed by Ceorl and Penda who was one of the most powerful Mercian kings.
A major influence was the coming of Christianity in the sixth and seventh centuries. It was brought by Irish monks to many places such as Iona in 563 and Lindesfarne in 635.
King Penda who ruled from 632 to 654 was followed by his sons, Peada, Wulfhere and Ethelred.
Tradition has it that King Wulfhere founded the Abbey of St. Mary at Wolverhampton (now St. Peter’s Church) in 659 but there is no proof of this. The diocese of Lichfield was formed when St. Chad was appointed as bishop of the Mercians in 669 with a central church at Lichfield.
Ethelred conquered Kent in 676 and founded the monastery at Worcester in 679. In 685 Mercia became the supreme power when Northumbria was invaded by the Picts. Ethelred retired in 704 to a monastic life, to be succeeded by his nephew Cenred. His successors were Ceolred followed by Aethelbald.

1) Northumbria, (Angles living North of the River Humber.) This eventually stretched to Edinburgh – created by Edwin a Saxon war lord (Edwins Town.)
2) Mercia (Middle Angles.)
3) East Anglia (East Angles.)
4) Essex (East Saxons.)
5) Wessex (West Saxons.) This eventually took in Cornwall, which became fully English.
6) Sussex (South Saxons.)
7) Kent (Formed from the original Jutes who landed with Hengist in 449 AD and who formed the ‘Men of Kent’)

Old English should not be regarded as a single monolithic entity just as Modern English is also not monolithic. Within Old English, there were language variations.
Old English has variation along regional lines as well as variation across different times.
The four main dialectal forms of Old English were Northumbrian, spoken north of the river Humber; Mercian, spoken in the midlands; Kentish, spoken in Kent (the southeastern part); and West Saxon, spoken in the southwest. Each of those dialects was associated with an independent kingdom on the island. Of these, all of Northumbria and most of Mercia were overrun by the Vikings during the 9th century. The portion of Mercia and all of Kent that were successfully defended were then integrated into Wessex.
After the process of unification of the diverse Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in 878 by Alfred the Great, there is a marked decline in the importance of regional dialects. This is not because they stopped existing; regional dialects continued even after that time to this day.
The bulk of the surviving documents from the Anglo-Saxon period are written in the dialect of Wessex, Alfred's kingdom. It became necessary to standardize the language of government to reduce the difficulty of administering the more remote areas of the kingdom. As a result, documents were written in the West Saxon dialect.
The Church was affected likewise, especially since Alfred initiated an ambitious program to translate religious materials into English.
Because of the centralization of power and the Viking invasions, there is little or no written evidence for the development of non-Wessex dialects after Alfred's unification. Late West Saxon was still used after the Norman Conquest but Latin and Norman French then became the languages of the nobility and administration.
Modern-day Received Pronunciation is not a direct descendant of the best-attested dialect, Late West Saxon. It is rather a descendant of a Mercian dialect, since that was the dialect of London.

OE was largely a synthetic language; it possessed a system of grammatical forms, which could indicate the connection between words; consequently, the functional load of syntactic ways of word connection was relatively small. It was primarily a spoken language, therefore the written forms of the language resembled oral speech - unless the texts were literal translations from Latin or poems with stereotyped constructions. Consequently, the syntax of the sentence was relatively simple; coordination of clauses prevailed over subordination; complicated syntactical constructions were rare.
The syntactic structure of a language can be described at the level of the phrase and at the level of the sentence. In OE texts we find a variety of word phrases (also: word groups or patterns).
The connection between the parts of the sentence was shown by the form of the words as they had formal markers for gender, case, number and person. The presence of formal markers made it possible to miss out some parts of the sentence which would be obligatory in an English sentence now.
The formal subject was lacking in many impersonal sentences (though it was present in others).
There was multiple negation within a single sentence or clause. The most common negative particle was "ne", which was placed before the verb; it was often accompanied by other negative words, mostly "naht" or "noht", these words reinforced the meaning of negation.
Compound and complex sentences existed in the English language since the earliest times. Even in the oldest texts we find numerous instances of coordination and subordination and a large inventory of subordinate clauses, subject clauses, object clauses, attributive clauses adverbial clauses.
Repetition of connectives at the head of each clause (correlation) was common in complex sentences.
20.The Norman conquest of England
The Norman conquest of England began on 28 September 1066 with the invasion of England by William the Conqueror, Duke of Normandy and his victory at the Battle of Hastings on 14 October 1066 over King Harold II of England. Harold's army was badly depleted in the English victory at the Battle of Stamford Bridge in Northern England on 25 September 1066 over the army of King Harald III of Norway. By early 1071, William had secured control of most of England, although rebellions and resistance continued to approximately 1088.
The Norman conquest was a pivotal event in English history. It largely removed the native ruling class, replacing it with a foreign, French-speaking monarchy, aristocracy, and clerical hierarchy. This, in turn, brought about a transformation of the English language and the culture of England in a new era often referred to as Norman England.
By bringing England under the control of rulers originating in France, the Norman conquest linked the country more closely with continental Europe, lessened Scandinavian influence, and also set the stage for a rivalry with France that would continue intermittently for many centuries. It also had important consequences for the rest of the British Isles, paving the way for further Norman conquests in Wales and Ireland, and the extensive penetration of the aristocracy of Scotland by Norman and other French-speaking families, with the accompanying spread of continental institutions and cultural influences.

@темы: Полезно