История английского языка 1-11

Добро должно быть с кулаками. А зло - с тентаклями. Народная мудрость (с)
1. The old English language and it's linguistic image
2. The history of the English language and it's place in the system of philological and linguistic studies
3. Old English as a germanic language (give all the features(7) of the germanic language to compare with other languages).
4. English sounds:
a)vowels b) consonants
5. Old English writing system (both runes and the Latin alphabet) + mixture of...???
6. Old English writings(from the last lecture)
7. Биовульф as an epic poem of old English
8. The old English grammar
9. The old English nouns
10. The old English grammar(= 8 )
11. The old English verbs
12. The old English adjectives
13. The old English adverbs
14. The old English numerals
15. The old English word order
16. The old English stylistic - отрицание и точка
17. The ways of linking words in linking sentenses
18. The old English vocabulary, preroman british islands, roman invasion into 13(веке?) the British Islands, Scandinavian invasion into British islands
19. Old English kingdoms and Old English dialogs(диалекты) *диалектов было меньше чем королевств
20.The norman conquest of England

1-2) The subject.
The History of the English language. Subject: the English language in its diachronic aspect, which means the language at different stages of its development. The study of the history of the English language in the whole is important to retrace the development of the language from its origins to the modern state and to observe the social and cultural history of the country and native-speakers of the language.
The English language reflects many centuries of development, and it is important to know linguistic history in order to conceive the principal features of present-day English in its phonetic, lexical and grammatical aspects.
The history of the English language shows the place of English in the linguistic world; it reveals its ties and contacts with other related and unrelated tongues. Old English was the language of Anglo-Saxons and it was common for all Germanic tribes not only on the territory of the British Isles, but also on the Continent. Studying the Old English period we study not only the origins of Modern English, but also the origins of some other modern languages, such as German for example, so we can understand better the linguistic and extralinguistic connections between English and other Germanic languages.
The origin of the English language.
English is a West Germanic language that originated from the Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Britain by Germanic invaders from various parts of what is now northwest Germany and the Netherlands. Initially, Old English was a diverse group of dialects, reflecting the varied origins of the Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms of England. One of these dialects, Late West Saxon, eventually came to dominate.
The original Old English language was then influenced by two further waves of invasion: the first by speakers of the Scandinavian branch of the Germanic language family, who conquered and colonized parts of Britain in the 8th and 9th centuries; the second by the Normans in the 11th century, who spoke Old Norman and ultimately developed an English variety of this called Anglo-Norman. These two invasions caused English to become "mixed" to some degree.
Cohabitation with the Scandinavians resulted in a significant grammatical simplification and lexical enrichment of the Anglo-Frisian core of English; the later Norman occupation led to the grafting onto that Germanic core of a more elaborate layer of words from the Romance languages (Latin based languages). This Norman influence entered English largely through the courts and government. Thus, English developed into a "borrowing" language of great flexibility, resulting in an enormous and varied vocabulary.

3) English as a Germanic language.
All Germanic languages are considered to be descended from a hypothetical Proto-Germanic. Strong evidence for the unity of all the Germanic languages can be found in the phenomenon known as the first Germanic sound shift or consonant shift (also called Grimm's law), which set the Germanic subfamily apart from the other members of the Indo-European family.
Germanic languages possess several common features, such as the following:
1. The transformation of the Indo-European verbal system of tense and aspect into the present tense and the past tense (also called the preterite).
2. The presence of a large class of verbs with the dental suffixes (/d/ or /t/) instead of vowel alternation (Indo-European ablaut) to indicate past tense; these are called the Germanic weak verbs (in English care-cared-cared or look-looked-looked; German fragen-fragte-gefragt); the remaining verbs with vowel ablaut are the Germanic strong verbs (in English lie-lay-lain or ring-rang-rung; German ringen-rang-gerungen).
3. The system of so-called strong and weak adjectives: different sets of inflectional endings for adjectives depending on the definiteness of the noun phrase (modern English adjectives do not inflect at all, except for the comparative and superlative; this was not the case in Old English, where adjectives were inflected differently depending on the type of determiner they were preceded by).
4. The comparison of adjectives in the Germanic languages follows a parallel pattern, as in English: rich, richer, richest; German reich, reicher, reichst; and Swedish rik, rikare, rikast.
5. The formation of the genitive singular by the addition of -s or -es. Examples: English man, man's; Swedish hund, hunds; German Lehrer, Lehrers or Mann, Mannes.
6. The consonant shift known as Grimm's Law (which continued in German in a second shift known as the High German consonant shift).
7. Some words with etymologies that are difficult to link to other Indo-European families, but variants appear in almost all Germanic languages.
8. The shifting of word stress onto word stems and later on the first syllable of the word (though English has an irregular stress, native words always have a fixed stress regardless of what is added to them).
9. Another distinctive characteristic shared by the Germanic languages is the umlaut, which is a type of vowel change in the root of a word. It is demonstrated in the pairs foot (singular) – feet (plural) in English; fot (singular) – fötter (plural) in Swedish; and Kampf (singular) – Kämpfe (plural) in German.
10. Another characteristic of Germanic languages is verb second (V2) word order (the rule in some languages that the second component of declarative main clauses is always a verb, while this is not necessarily the case in other types of clauses), which is quite uncommon cross-linguistically. This feature is shared by all modern Germanic languages except modern English (which nevertheless appears to have had V2 earlier in its history) which has more or less replaced the structure with fixed Subject Verb Object word order.
Germanic languages differ from each other to a greater degree than some other language families such as the Romance or Slavic languages do. We can say that Germanic languages differ in how conservative or how progressive each language is taking into consideration the aspect of analyticity of a language. Some, such as German, have preserved much of the complex inflectional morphology inherited from the Proto-Indo-European language. Others, such as English, have moved toward a largely analytic type.
4) English sounds: a)vowels b) consonants
Old English phonetic structure as compared to Modern English.
Old English alphabet used two kinds of letters: the runes and the letters of the Latin alphabet.
Old English introduced three letters not present in the Latin alphabet, called thorn, eth, and wynn. Thorn – Þ, þ, and eth – Ð, ð – were both developed by Anglo-Saxon scribes to represent a sound that was not present in Latin, the sound that Modern English represents with the letters th. Wynn is represented by a w.
The Anglo-Saxons did not use the letters v and j (which were invented later), and q and z were used only very occasionally. They used the letter æ, which we do not use in spelling, but only in transcription.
Old English alphabet:
a æ b c d e f з h i l m n o p r s t þ u w x y
Old English writing was based on the phonetic principle: every letter indicated a separate sound. But, some letters indicated two or more sounds; there were some rules of reading. For example:
s [s] ras; [z] between vowels – risan;
f [v] between vowels – ofer, drifan; [f] feohtan; fœder;
c [k] cuman, cnawan;
з [g'] зan; [γ] daзas; [j] dæз;
h [x] tahte; [x'] niht;
System of vowels.
Old English had six simple vowels: a, æ, i, o, u, y, and probably a seventh – ie. It also had two diphthongs: ea, eo. Each of these sounds came in short and long versions. Long vowels are marked with macrons (e.g. ā;). Vowel length is significant in Old English because it does make a difference in the meanings of words. For example, Old English is means is while īs means ice, ac means but while āc means oak, and ge means and while gē means you (plural).
Palatal mutation (i-mutation).
I-mutation (German linguists call it Umlaut) is a shift in the quality of a vowel so that it is pronounced with the tongue higher and farther forward than usual. Examples: framian – fremman – frame; dohtor – dehter – daughter.
We can still find the effects of i-mutation in Modern English. The vowels of such plurals as men (sg. man), lice (louse), teeth (tooth) and comparative adjective elder (old) demonstrate i-mutation; also i-mutation accounts for most of the verbs that change their vowels and add a past-tense ending (sell/sold, buy/bought, in which the present has i-mutation but the past does not).
System of consonants.
Most Old English consonants are pronounced as in Modern English, and most of the differences from Modern English are like the following:
Old English scribes wrote the letters þ (thorn) and ð (eth) interchangeably to represent [θ] and [ð], the sounds spelled th in Modern English. Examples: þing 'thing', brōðor 'brother'.
There are no silent consonants. Old English cniht (knight) actually begins with [k], hlāf (loaf) and hring (ring) begin with [h], gnæt (gnat) with [g], and wrīðan (writhe) with [w].
Rhotacism. Proto-Germanic [z] underwent a phonetic modification through the stage of [з] into [r] and thus became a sonorant, which ultimately merged with the [r]. freosan – freas – fruron – gefroren.
Geminantion. In all West Germanic languages, at an early stage of their independent history, most consonants were lengthened after a short vowel before [l]. This is doubling of consonants: fuljan – fyllan (fill).
Loss of consonants in some positions. Nasal sonorants were regularly lost before fricative consonants; in the process the preceding vowel was probably nasalized and lengthened, fimf – fīf (five). It should be also mentioned the loss of consonants in unstressed final syllables. [j] was regularly dropped in suffixes after producing various changes in the root.
5. The Old English writing.
Old English was first written in runes (futhorc) but shifted to a (minuscule) half-uncial sсript of the Latin alphabet introduced by Irish Christian missionaries. This was replaced by insular sсript, a cursive and pointed version of the half-uncial sсript. This was used until the end of the 12th century when continental Carolingian minuscule (also known as Caroline) replaced the insular.
The Insular Hand.
The Insular Hand was the name of the writing system used in England, it was a medieval sсript system originally used in Ireland, then Great Britain, until spreading to continental Europe in centers under the influence of Celtic Christianity.
Works written in Insular scripts commonly use large initial letters surrounded by red ink dots. Letters following a large initial at the start of a paragraph or section often gradually diminish in size as they are written across a line or a page, until the normal size is reached, which is called a "diminuendo" effect.
Letters with ascenders (b, d, h, l, etc.) are written with triangular or wedge-shaped tops. The bows of letters such as b, d, p, and q are very wide. The sсript has many unique scribal abbreviations, along with many borrowings from Tironian notes (a system of abbreviated symbolic writing, had been invented by Cicero's scribe Marcus Tullius Tiro).
Old English alphabet used two kinds of letters: the runes and the letters of the Latin alphabet.
Old English writing was based on the phonetic principle: every letter indicated a separate sound. But, some letters indicated two or more sounds; there were some rules of reading.
Carolingian or Caroline minuscule is a sсript developed as a writing standard in Europe so that the Roman alphabet could be easily recognized by the small literate class from one region to another. It was used in Charlemagne's empire between approximately 800 and 1200. Codices, pagan and Christian texts, and educational material were written in Carolingian minuscule throughout the Carolingian Renaissance. The sсript developed into blackletter and became obsolete, though its revival in the Italian renaissance forms the basis of more recent scripts.
Chancery Standard.
Chancery Standard was a written form of English used by government bureaucracy and for other official purposes from the late 15th century. It is believed to have contributed in a significant way to the development of the English language as spoken and written today. Because of the differing dialects of English spoken and written across the country at the time, the government needed a clear and unambiguous form for use in its official documents. Chancery Standard was developed to meet this need.
The Chancery Standard (CS) was developed during the reign of King Henry V (1413 to 1422) and was largely based on the London and East Midland dialects, for those areas were the political and demographic centers of gravity. However, it used other dialect forms where they made meanings clearer; for example, the northern "they", "their" and "them" (derived from Scandinavian forms) were used rather than the London "hi/they", "hir" and "hem."
By the mid-15th century, CS was used for most official purposes except by the Church (which used Latin) and for some legal purposes (for which French and some Latin were used). It was disseminated around England by bureaucrats on official business, and slowly gained prestige.
CS provided a widely intelligible form of English for the first English printers, from the 1470s onwards.
The orthography in Early Modern English was fairly similar to that of today, but spelling was unphonetic and unstable; for example, the word acuity could be spelled either or . Further, there were a number of features of spelling that have not been retained:
* The letter S had two distinct lowercase forms: sas today, and > (long s). The former was used at the end of a word, and the latter everywhere else, except that double-lowercase-S was variously written s.[2] This is similar to the alternation between normal (σ;) and final lower case sigma (ς;) in Greek.
* and were not yet considered two distinct letters, but different forms of the same letter. Typographically, was used at the start of a word and elsewhere[3]; hence vnmoued (for modern unmoved) and loue (for love).
* and were also not yet considered two distinct letters, but different forms of the same letter, hence "ioy" for "joy" and "iust" for "just".
* A silent was often appended to words. The last consonant sometimes was doubled when adding this ; hence ſpeake, cowarde, manne (for man), runne (for run).
* The sound /ʌ/ was often written (as in son); hence ſommer, plombe (for modern summer, plumb).[4]
Nothing was standard, however. For example, "Julius Caesar" could be spelled "Julius Cæſar", "Ivlivs Cæſar", "Jvlivs Cæſar", or "Iulius Cæſar" and the word "he" could be found being spelled "he" or "hee" in the same sentence in Shakespeare's plays.
6)Old English writings
Old English literature, though more abundant than literature of the continent before AD 1000[citation needed][specify] is nonetheless scant. In his supplementary article to the 1935 posthumous edition of Bright's Anglo-Saxon Reader, Dr. James Hulbert writes:
In such historical conditions, an incalculable amount of the writings of the Anglo-Saxon period perished. What they contained, how important they were for an understanding of literature before the Conquest, we have no means of knowing: the scant catalogs of monastic libraries do not help us, and there are no references in extant works to other compositions....How incomplete our materials are can be illustrated by the well-known fact that, with few and relatively unimportant exceptions, all extant Anglo-Saxon poetry is preserved in four manuscripts.
Some of the most important surviving works of Old English literature are Beowulf, an epic poem; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, a record of early English history; the Franks Casket, an early whalebone artefact; and Caedmon's Hymn, a Christian religious poem. There are also a number of extant prose works, such as sermons and saints' lives, biblical translations, and translated Latin works of the early Church Fathers, legal documents, such as laws and wills, and practical works on grammar, medicine, and geography. Still, poetry is considered the heart of Old English literature. Nearly all Anglo-Saxon authors are anonymous, with a few exceptions, such as Bede and Caedmon.
7) Beowulf
Beowulf is the conventional title[note 1] of an Old English heroic epic poem consisting of 3182 alliterative long lines, set in Scandinavia, commonly cited as one of the most important works of Anglo-Saxon literature.
It survives in a single manuscript known as the Nowell Codex. Its composition by an anonymous Anglo-Saxon poet[note 2] is dated between the 8th[1][2] and the early 11th century.[3] In 1731, the manuscript was badly damaged by a fire that swept through a building housing a collection of Medieval manuscripts assembled by Sir Robert Bruce Cotton. The poem fell into obscurity for decades, and its existence did not become widely known again until it was printed in 1815 in an edition prepared by the Icelandic-Danish scholar Grímur Jónsson Thorkelin.[4]
In the poem, Beowulf, a hero of the Geats in Scandinavia, comes to the help of Hroðgar, the king of the Danes, whose mead hall (in Heorot) has been under attack by a monster known as Grendel. After Beowulf slays him, Grendel's mother attacks the hall and is then also defeated. Victorious, Beowulf goes home to Geatland in Sweden and later becomes king of the Geats. After a period of fifty years has passed, Beowulf defeats a dragon, but is fatally wounded in the battle. After his death, his attendants bury him in a tumulus, a burial mound, in Geatland.

8) The grammar of Old English
The grammar of Old English is quite different from that of Modern English, predominantly by being much more inflected, similar to Latin. As an old Germanic language, the morphological system of Old English is similar to that of the hypothetical Proto-Germanic reconstruction, retaining many of the inflections thought to have been common in Proto-Indo-European and also including characteristically Germanic constructions such as the umlaut.
Among living languages, Old English morphology most closely resembles that of modern Icelandic, which is among the most conservative of the Germanic languages; to a lesser extent, the Old English inflectional system is similar to that of modern High German.
Nouns, pronouns, adjectives and determiners were fully inflected with five grammatical cases (nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, and instrumental), two grammatical numbers (singular and plural) and three grammatical genders (masculine, feminine, and neuter). First and second person personal pronouns also had dual forms for referring to groups of two people, in addition to the usual singular and plural forms.[1] The instrumental case was somewhat rare and occurred only in the masculine and neuter singular; it could typically be replaced by the dative. Adjectives, pronouns and (sometimes) participles agreed with their antecedent nouns in case, number and gender. Finite verbs agreed with their subject in person and number.
Nouns came in numerous declensions (with deep parallels in Latin, Ancient Greek and Sanskrit). Verbs came in nine main conjugations (seven strong and two weak), each with numerous subtypes, as well as a few additional smaller conjugations and a handful of irregular verbs. The main difference from other ancient Indo-European languages, such as Latin, is that verbs can be conjugated in only two tenses (vs. the six "tenses" – really tense/aspect combinations – of Latin), and have no synthetic passive voice (although it did still exist in Gothic).
Gender in nouns was grammatical, as opposed to the natural gender that prevails in modern English. That is, the grammatical gender of a given noun did not necessarily correspond its natural gender, even for nouns referring to people. For example, sēo sunne (the Sun) was feminine, se mōna (the Moon) was masculine, and þæt wīf "the woman/wife" was neuter. (Compare modern German die Sonne, der Mond, das Weib.) Pronominal usage could reflect either natural or grammatical gender, when it conflicted.
9) Noun.
O.E. The Noun.
The Old English noun had two grammatical categories: number and case. The category of number consisted of two members, singular and plural. The noun had three genders: Masculine, Feminine and Neuter and four cases: Nom., Gen., Dat. and Acc.. There are two declensions of the noun: strong and weak.
Strong Noun Declension
Case masc. engel 'angel' neut. scip 'ship' fem. sorg 'sorrow'
Sg. Pl. Sg. Pl. Sg. Pl.
Nom. engel englas scip scipu sorg sorga
Gen. engles engla scipes scipa sorge sorga
Dat. engle englum scipe scipum sorge sorgum
Acc. engel englas scip scipu sorge sorga/sorge

Weak Noun Declension
Case masc. nama 'name' neut.mēage 'eye' fem. tunge 'tongue'
sg. pl. sg. pl. sg. pl.
Nom. nama naman ēage ēagan tunge tungan
Gen. naman namena ēagan ēagena tungan tungena
Dat. naman namum ēagan ēagum tungan tungum
Acc. naman naman ēage ēagan tungan tungan
The athematic nouns are those that sometimes have i-mutation of the root vowel instead of an ending; they are the ancestors of Modern English nouns like man/men and tooth/teeth.
masc. short fem. long fem.
nom. mann 'man' hnutu 'nut' bōc 'book'
gen. mannes hnyte bēċ
dat. menn hnyte bēċ
acc. mann hnutu bōc
pl. nom. menn hnyte bēċ
gen. manna hnuta bōca
dat. mannum hnutum bōcum
acc. menn hnyte bēċ
Irregular strong nouns – a noun whose main vowel is short 'æ' and ends with a single consonant change the vowel to 'a' in the pl.:
Dæg 'day' m.
Case Sg. Pl.
Nom. dæg dagas
Gen. dæges daga
Dat. dæge dagum
Acc. dæg dagas
ðæt flod weox ðā and ābær upp ðone arc – subject, active agent (that flood increased then and bore up the arc);
wearð ðā ælc ðing cwices ādrenct – subject, recipient of an action or state (was then everything alive drowned);
The analysis of the morphological structure of the language showed that Old English was a highly inflected synthetic language as compared with Modern English. Old English uses an extensive case, number, gender and person system. The Modern English language is an analytic language with very few inflections, which are ancestors of synthetic forms of Old English.
Inflections in the Old English language were necessary, because the word order was not fixed and was formed more or less free. Inflections helped to express one's mind correctly, unambiguous and without misunderstandings.
11) OE verb
O.E. The verb.
The verb-predicate agreed with the subject of the sentence in two grammatical categories: number and person. Its specifically ver¬bal categories were mood and tense.
The category of Person was made up of three forms: the 1st, the 2nd and the 3rd. The category of Mood was constituted by the Indicative, Impera¬tive and Subjunctive. The category of Tense consisted of two categorical forms, Pres. and Past, The tenses were formally distinguished by all the verbs in the Ind. and Subj. Moods.
Verbs of the weak class make the past tense by adding a dental consonant (-d- or -t-) as a suffix. Strong verbs do not add a dental suffix to make its past tense, but rather change the vowel of its root syllable. The root vowels of strong verbs undergo i-mutation in the present second- and third-person sg. indicative.
Conjugation of Verbs in Old English
Strong Weak
Infinitive findan beran deman locian
find bear deem took
Present tense
Sg. 1st finde bere derae locie
2nd fintst birst demst locast
3rd fint birð demð locað
Pl. findap berað demað lociað
Sg. finde bere deme locie
Pl. finden beren demen locien
Sg. find ber dem loca
Pl. findap berað demað lociað
Participle I findende berende demende lociende
Past tense
Sg. 1st fond basr demde locode
2nd funde bærе demdest locodest
3rd fond baer demde locode
Pl. fundon beron deradon locodon
Sg. funde bærе demde locode
Pl. funden bærеn deraden locoden
Participle II gefundon gebоrеn gedemed gelocod
Future tense. There are just two tenses, past and present. Old English has various strategies for referring to future time: it uses auxiliary verbs (including willan), explicit references to time (e.g. tōmorgen 'tomorrow'), and the simple present, relying on context to express futurity.
Perfect. Old English has no perfect and pluperfect. It can use forms of the verb habban 'to have' with the past participle, as Modern English does (hæfð onfunden 'has discovered', hæfde onfunden 'had discovered'), it can use the adverb ǣr 'before' with the simple past (ǣr onfand 'had discovered'), or it can use the past tense alone, in which case you must infer the correct translation from the context.
Preterite-present verbs. Most of the Old English auxiliaries belong to a class of verbs called preterite-presents, whose present tenses look like strong past tenses and whose past tenses look like weak pasts.
Preterite-present verbs
'know how to' 'be able to' 'be obliged to' 'know'
cunnan magan sculan witan
present indicative
iċ cann iċ mæġ iċ sceal iċ wāt
ðū canst ðū meaht ðū scealt ðū wāst
hēo cann hē mæġ hit sceal hēo wāt
wē cunnon ġē magon hīe sculon ġē witon
past indicative
iċ cūðe hēo meahte, mihte hit sceolde hē wisse, wiste
ðū cūðest ðū meahtest, mihtest ðū sceoldest ðū wistest
wē cūðon ġē meahton, mihton hīe sceoldon wē wisson, wiston
present subjunctive
iċ cunne hēo mæġe ðū scyle, scule hē wite
past subjunctive
iċ cūðe hēo meahte, mihte ðū sceolde hē wisse, wiste
--- --- --- witende
cunnen, cūð --- --- witen
Anomalous verbs. Additionally there is a further group of four verbs which are anomalous, the verbs will, do, go and be.
'do' 'go' 'will'
infinitive dōn gān willan
present indicative iċ dō iċ gā iċ wille
þū dēst þū gǣst þū wilt
hēo dēð hit gǣð hē wile
wē dōð ġē gāð hīe willað
past indicative iċ dyde hit ēode hēo wolde
þū dydest þū ēodest þū woldest
wē dydon ġē ēodon hīe woldon
present subjunctive iċ dō hēo gā þū wille
past subjunctive iċ dyde hēo ēode þū wolde
participles dōnde --- willende
ġedōn ġegān ---
infinitives bēon, wesan 'to be'
indicative iċ eom iċ bēo past
indicative iċ wæs
ðū eart ðū bist ðū wǣre
hē is hēo bið hit wæs
hīe sind, sindon wē bēoð ġē wǣron
subjunctive hē sīe ðū bēo past
subjunctive iċ wǣre
wē sīen ġē bēon hīe wǣren
imperative bēo, wes
bēoð, wesað
participles bēonde, wesende
The forms are an amalgam of three different verbs: one that accounts for the present forms in the first column, one that accounts for all the b- forms, and one that accounts for all the w- forms.
Classes of weak verbs. Germanic weak verbs fall into three classes: the first two of these are well represented in Old English and the third has almost disappeared.
Class 1: sceððan – sceðede – sceðedon – gesceðed (i-mutation, germination)
Class 2: lufian – lufode – lufodon – gelufod
Class 3: libban – lifde – leofode – ġelifd
Classes of strong verbs. There are seven classes.
Class 1: drīfan – drāf – drifon – gedrifen
Class 2: frēosan – freas – fruron – gefroren (rhotacism)
Class 3: findan – fand – fundon – gefunden
Class 4: beran – bær – bāron – geboren
Class 5: sprecan – sprec – spreacon – gesprecen
Class 6: faran – fōr – fōron – gefaren
Class 7: cnāwan – cneow – cneowon – gecnāwen

@темы: Полезно

2013-03-02 в 11:17 

Добро должно быть с кулаками. А зло - с тентаклями. Народная мудрость (с)
2013-10-04 в 13:39 

Добро должно быть с кулаками. А зло - с тентаклями. Народная мудрость (с)
Гость, Я все равно буду удалять этот спам раз за разом, чувак, окстись XD


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